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Financial ratios

Book Value Per Share
Equity Shareholders Funds divided by Shares in Issue

Capital Employed
The value of the Assets invested and employed in the business.
Total Assets – Total Current Liabilities.

Current Ratio
A measure of a company's liquidity, or its ability to pay its short-term debts. Calculated by dividing current assets by current liabilities. Total Current Assets divided by Total Current Liabilities

Debt/Equity Ratio
Gross debt (long and short term borrowings, debt securities) divided by Equity Shareholders Funds. Borrowing Information is generally only available from the Annual Report. Will not be populated if latest set of results are preliminaries.

Diluted Earnings Per Share
The earnings per share (EPS) if all convertible securities were exercised.

Dividend Cover
Earnings per Share divided by Dividends per Share

Earnings Per Share
A company’s profits allocated on a per share basis. This figure is as stated by the company.

EBITDA
Profit/(Loss) on ordinary activities before interest + Depreciation + Goodwill/Amortisation

Enterprise Value
A measure of a company’s value incorporating the debt and cash theoretically being purchased. Market Capitalisation + Minority Interests + Long Term Debt (Creditors > one year, Long term Borrowings) less cash and interest bearing deposits.

Enterprise Value/EBIT
Enterprise Value divided by Operating Profit as calculated by LSE methodology (and Total Net Return before finance costs and taxation for Investment companies).

Equity Per Share Return
Profit/(Loss) for the period after interest, exceptionals, tax and extraordinary items divided by Equity Shareholders funds *100

Gearing
Gross long term debt divided by debt as above plus Equity Shareholders Funds. Borrowing Information is generally only available from the Annual Report. Unlike the debt figures in the Debt/Equity Ratios, the Gearing Ratios include creditors amounts greater than one year from the preliminary announcements as a representation of debt. On release of Annual Reports with information on borrowings, the creditors balances are re-distributed between trade creditors and long term borrowings.

Interest Cover
A measure of a company’s ability to cover borrowing costs from profits. Profit/(Loss) on ordinary activities before interest (and Total Net Return before finance costs and taxation for Investment companies) divided by Interest and Other Financial Expense.  

Loss Ratio
The ratio of the annual claims paid by an insurance company to the premiums received.
General Business Claims Including Net Re-Insurance divided by General Business Earned Premiums Net of Re-Insurance.

Market Capitalisation
Shares in Issue * Share Price (applicable dates provided after each component)

Net Debt/Equity Ratio
Gross debt (long and short term borrowings, debt securities issued) less cash and interest bearing securities divided by Equity Shareholders Funds. Borrowing Information is generally only available from the Annual Report. Will not be populated if latest set of results are preliminaries.

Net Fees and Commissions
Net Commission Income divided by Total Income.

Net Gearing
Gross long term debt less cash and interest bearing securities divided by debt as above plus Equity Shareholders Funds. Borrowing Information is generally only available from the Annual Report. Unlike the debt figures in the Debt/Equity Ratios, the Gearing Ratios include creditors amounts greater than one year from the preliminary announcements as a representation of debt. On release of Annual Reports with information on borrowings, the creditors balances are re-distributed between trade creditors and long term borrowings.

Net Income
Operating Profit as calculated by LSE methodology (and Total Net Return before finance costs and taxation for Investment companies). This value excludes all exceptional items.

Net Interest Income
Net Interest Income divided by Total Income. Primarily a Banking Ratio

Net Profit Margin
Profit/(Loss) on ordinary activities before interest divided by Group Turnover (and Gross Rental Income for Real Estate companies)

Operating Margin
Operating Profit/(Loss) as calculated by LSE methodology divided by Group Turnover (and Gross Rental Income for Real Estate companies)

PE Ratio
The Ratio of a company’s share price at a point in time to per-share earnings.Market Capitalisation divided by Profit/(Loss) for the period after interest exceptionals, taxation, extraordinary items and preference dividends.

Price/Book Value
Closing Price per Share divided by Equity Shareholders Funds per share.

Price/Cashflow
Closing Price per Share divided by Net Cash Inflow/outflow from operating activities per share

Price/Free Cashflow
Closing Price per Share divided by Net cash inflow/outflow from operating activities less cashflow from returns on investments and servicing finance, taxation and capital expenditure per share

Price/Sales
Closing Price per Share divided by Group Turnover per share

Quick Ratio
Ratio of a company’s current assets excluding stocks to current liabilities. Total Current Assets – Stocks divided by Total Current Liabilities

Return on Assets
Profit/(Loss) for the period after interest exceptionals, tax and extraordinary items divided by Total Assets.

Return on Capital Employed
Operating Profit as calculated by LSE methodology (and Total Net Return before finance costs and taxation for Investment companies) divided by Capital Employed

Return on Equity
Profit/(Loss) for the period after interest, exceptionals, tax and extraordinary items divided by Equity Shareholders funds *100

Turnover Per Share
Group Turnover (and Gross Rental Income for Real Estate companies) per share. Not applicable for Banks and Insurance Companies.  



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